The electoral rise of the Front National (FN) starting in the early 1980s (it was created in 1972) made France an exception in Europe. However, this is no longer the case, and far-right parties in many European countries not only score just as high but also sometimes higher. Moreover, the electoral system enables them to participate in government coalitions for purposes of constituting right-wing majorities. The principal cause of electoral support for far-right parties in many European countries is the rejection of Muslim immigration, now seen in France as a threat to the national identity and values of the nation. In a context of economic globalization, foreigners serve as scapegoats and are blamed for offshore manufacturing and, therefore, for unemployment. While these forces are common to the rise of the far-right in Europe, the particular features of national situations remain. This is why we have chosen to present various European situations, including that of Russia, to better understand this phenomenon.
- Neither the End of the Nation nor the End of Territory
- Common Features of European Situations
- European Situations for Specific Parties
- The Rightward Shift in Public Policy
- Regional Nationalism
- Unacceptable Partition of National Territory