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Hérodote

2012/3 (No 146-147)

  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 9782707174512
  • DOI : 10.3917/her.146.0014
  • Publisher : La Découverte

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Abstract

English

The foundations of geography are the same as those known in France as “geopolitics,” by which is meant any power struggle over a given territory. This encompasses not only the influence of natural givens on balances of power (what Anglo-American experts on international relations sometimes call “geopolitics”), but also the territorial aspects of rivalries and the localization of forces present in a broad international context. Geography is the knowledge and reasoning applied to the complexities of the world’s space. This is accomplished at different levels of spatial analysis by studying interactions (local, national, and planetary) and considering the precise cartographic configurations and intersections of a number of spatial entities of varying sizes. Geographical territory, including its physical features, is an essential feature of geopolitics. However, geopolitics also includes studying the people who live on that territory, the forms of power they accept, those they rebel against for historical reasons in which they rightly or wrongly believe, their fears, and the representation they create of a more or less distant past and future. Hence, evaluating the conflicting representations of a territory during conflicts is a major tool in geopolitics. As a case study, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict will be used to illustrate the relationship between geographical and geopolitical reasoning.

Outline

  1. Geography as an Effective Tool for Leaders over the Centuries
  2. Late Arrival of the Geography in Pedagogy
  3. The Rise of Geopolitik after 1918, when the French School of Geography Suddenly Refused to Include the Political Dimension
  4. The Singular Importance of the Geopolitical Idea in France since the 1980s
  5. Geographical Reasoning Tools
  6. Spatial Sets and Intersections of Spatial Sets
  7. Spatial Sets of Very Different Sizes with Intersecting and Superimposed Configurations
  8. The Classification of Spatial Sets by Order of Magnitude
  9. Considering Contradictory Representations: A Major Tool in Geographical Reasoning
  10. Israel-Palestine: Geographical and Geopolitical Reasoning
    1. The Origins of the Geopolitical Conflict: Some Forgotten Geographical Information
    2. Intersections of Spatial Sets Resulting Mainly from Geopolitical Rivalries
    3. Logically, the Israelis Should Have Lost the First War
    4. Even for Jews, Israel’s Official Borders are Paradoxical
    5. Whittling and Parceling of the “Occupied Territories”
    6. Israel and the Changes in the Power Relationships in the Middle East

To cite this article

Yves Lacoste, “ La géographie, la géopolitique et le raisonnement géographique ”, Hérodote 3/2012 (n° 146-147) , p. 14-44
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-herodote-2012-3-page-14.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/her.146.0014.

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