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Criticism of scientific experts and the acquisition of genuine skills by patients have given rise to the concept of 'expert patient'?. Lay expertise may be that of patient associations, which have scientific committees that often include professionals. This half-professional half-lay expertise can produce a counter-expertise. Defining its rights and methods could be a real progress for our democratic society. It can also be the expertise of patients who become experts for other patients, thanks to training leading to a qualification. But to demand official recognition for such 'expert patients'? would inevitably raise questions of liability and remuneration. This highlights the difference between 'expert patients'? who comply with defined standards, and 'resource patients'? selected by healthcare teams, not because of their overall skills but because of their specific experience and their ability to communicate it.